Ethics & Citation policy

Ethical statement

Clinical data and human fetal material

Data collected for this project includes prospectively collected clinical data and data from post-mortem fetuses. All clinical and in-utero imaging data has been collected as part of the PRECISE Study (A Prospective Early Pregnancy Cardiac Imaging and Anatomy Screening Study, Research Ethics Committee: 16/LO/2159), conducted at Imperial College London, United Kingdom. Data from post-mortem fetuses is obtained through a Dutch biobank project (Fetal and Aneuploidy Biobank, METC number 2016.285).

All protocols have received ethical permission and all materials are handled with care and respect. Data published on this platform is fully anonymised and with patient consent.

Citation policy

1. Why a citation policy?

The 3D Ultrasound Atlas of Fetal Development is provided as a free open access resource as a public courtesy. This means that you are allowed to use this resource for educational and academic research purposes and other non-commercial activities. While we encourage you to use our resources for these purposes,  we want to ensure our content is afforded proper citation as specified below in all cases where it is used publicly.

If you are unsure about how to cite our work, please contact us.

Please send us a copy of your publication or other work citing our resources to This helps us to track when and how our content is being used, guiding us for our continued efforts to provide useful open access resources.

In case you would like to use any resources from the 3D Ultrasound Atlas of Fetal Development for any other purposes (e.g. for any commercial activities), please contact us to discuss the options of a license agreement.

2. Citation guidelines

2.1 General

If you cite or display any of the images or content displayed in this Atlas in any format; written or otherwise (including print or web publications, presentations, grant applications, websites, or other online applications such as social media or blogs), you must follow the Citation Guidelines, specified below.

2.2 Primary publication

In cases where there is a primary publication for a specific featured image or resource, cite both the publication and the website.  Citation of the primary publication is essential when citing the resource in a scientific publication. Content for which there is a primary publication will be clearly specified. Only in cases where citation of a primary publication is not feasible, citation of the website is sufficient.

2.3 No primary publication

For images or any other content obtained from The 3D Ultrasound Atlas of Fetal Development, where citation of a primary publication is not feasible, use the following citation:

“3D Ultrasound Atlas of Fetal Development, Amsterdam UMC and Imperial College London. Available from:”

3. Primary publication citations for data/resources featured on this site

3D embryological reference models, histological sections, and 3D-printed models:
B.S. de Bakker et al., An interactive three-dimensional digital atlas and quantitative database of human development, Science 2016; 354

In utero images of the fetal first trimester central nervous system:
H. Shah et al., The first trimester fetal nervous system: a novel ultrasonographic perspective, Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017: 217; 220-221